Human rights refer to the "basic rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.
The central authorities will not alter the existing political system in Tibet. The central authorities also will not alter the established status, functions and powers of the Dalai Lama. Officials of various ranks shall hold office as usual. The established status, functions and powers of the Panchen Ngoerhtehni shall be maintained.
By the established status, functions and powers of the Dalai Lama and of the Panchen Ngoerhtehni are meant the status, functions and powers of the thirteenth Dalai Lama and the ninth Panchen Ngoerhtehni when they had friendly and amicable relations with each other.
The policy of freedom of religious belief laid down in the common programme of the CPPCC shall be carried out. The religious beliefs, customs and habits of the Tibetan people shall be respected and lama monasteries shall be protected.
The central authorities will not effect a change in the income of the monasteries. The spoken and written language and school education of the Tibetan nationality shall be developed step by step in accordance with the actual conditions in Tibet.
In matters relating to various reforms in Tibet, there will be no compulsion on the part of the central authorities. The local government of Tibet shall carry out reforms of its own accord, and, when the people raise demands for reform, they shall be settled by means of consultation with the leading personnel of Tibet.
In so far as former pro-imperialists and pro- Kuomintang KMT officials resolutely sever relations with imperialism and the KMT and do not engage in sabotage or resistance, they may continue to hold office irrespective of their past. The PLA entering Tibet shall abide by all the above-mentioned policies and shall also be fair in all buying and selling and shall not arbitrarily take a needle or thread from the people.
The CPG shall have centralised handling of all external affairs of the area of Tibet; and there will be peaceful co-existence with neighbouring countries and establishment and development of fair commercial and trading relations with them on the basis of equality, mutual benefit and mutual respect for territory and sovereignty.
In order to ensure the implementation of this agreement, the CPG shall set up a Military and Administrative Committee and a Military Area HQ in Tibet and — apart from the personnel sent there by the CPG — shall absorb as many local Tibetan personnel as possible to take part in the work. Local Tibetan personnel taking part in the Military and Administrative Committee may include patriotic elements from the local government of Tibet, various districts and various principal monasteries; the name list shall be set forth after consultation between the representatives designated by the CPG and various quarters concerned and shall be submitted to the CPG for appointment.
The local government of Tibet should assist the PLA in the purchase and transport of food, fodder and other daily necessities. This agreement shall come into force immediately after signature and seals are affixed to it.
Points 2 and 3 were queried for the meaning of "local government", although the meaning of "national regional autonomy" was not discussed, since the Tibetan delegation assumed that things would go on as before. The Tibetans conceded the point. Fundamental disagreements about point 8, the disbandment of the Tibetan armyresulted in a promise to renegotiate the issue later.
The most contentious point was 15, concerning the establishment of a military and administrative committee, since Tibetan delegation felt that it contradicted point 11 about the local Tibetan government conducting reforms on its own.
Most of the other points were accepted without comment, or with minor translation adjustments. In order to avoid embarrassment for the Chinese delegation, accommodations to the Tibetan delegation about issues like the maintenance of the Tibetan army were to be concluded subsequently in separate, secret agreements.The Embarrassing Second Amendment Sanford Levinson University of Texas at Austin School of Law Reprinted from the Yale Law Journal, Volume 99, pp.
One of the best known pieces of American popular art in this century is the New Yorker cover by Saul Steinberg presenting a map of the United States as seen by a New Yorker, As most . Statement of Acknowledgement Head of Power Prohibition on Racial Discrimination A Voice to Parliament Agreement-Making; Does not diminish Aboriginal sovereignty and Torres Strait Islander sovereignty.
The essay will specifically answer if the Mcfarlane essay supports the case that humanitarian intervention is indeed an unaccepted assault on sovereignty. In answering such a question one must first consider each part of the question as a separate clause.
THE MAKING OF THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION. Table of Contents I.
Discontent with the Articles of Confederation II. The Constitutional Convention. India is a Sovereign Democratic Republic. The opening words of the Preamble to the Constitution emphasise the ultimate authority of the people of India from whose will the Constitution emerged.
The Preamble proclaims the solemn resolution of the people to constitute India, into a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, and Democratic Republic.
The principle of popular sovereignty [ ]. Tennessee Law Review; A Critical Guide to the Second Amendment, by Glenn Harlan Reynolds.