References and Further Reading 1.
References and Further Reading 1. The word "knowledge" and its cognates are used in a variety of ways. One common use of the word "know" is as an expression of psychological conviction.
For instance, we might hear someone say, "I just knew it wouldn't rain, but then it did. This point is discussed at greater length in section 2b below.
Even if we restrict ourselves to factive usages, there are still multiple senses of "knowledge," and so we need to distinguish between them. One kind of knowledge is procedural knowledge, sometimes called competence or "know-how;" for example, one can know how to ride a bicycle, or one can know how to drive from Washington, D.
Another kind of knowledge is acquaintance knowledge or familiarity; for instance, one can know the department chairperson, or one can know Philadelphia. Epistemologists typically do not focus on procedural or acquaintance knowledge, however, instead preferring to focus on propositional knowledge.
Propositional knowledge, then, can be called knowledge-that; statements of propositional knowledge or the lack thereof are properly expressed using "that"-clauses, such as "He knows that Houston is in Texas," or "She does not know that the square root of 81 is 9.
Propositional knowledge, obviously, encompasses knowledge about a wide range of matters: Any truth might, in principle, be knowable, although there might be unknowable truths.
One goal of epistemology is to determine the criteria for knowledge so that we can know what can or cannot be known, in other words, the study of epistemology fundamentally includes the study of meta-epistemology what we can know about knowledge itself.
We can also distinguish between different types of propositional knowledge, based on the source of that knowledge. Non-empirical or a priori knowledge is possible independently of, or prior to, any experience, and requires only the use of reason; examples include knowledge of logical truths such as the law of non-contradiction, as well as knowledge of abstract claims such as ethical claims or claims about various conceptual matters.
Empirical or a posteriori knowledge is possible only subsequent, or posterior, to certain sense experiences in addition to the use of reason ; examples include knowledge of the color or shape of a physical object or knowledge of geographical locations. Some philosophers, called rationalists, believe that all knowledge is ultimately grounded upon reason; others, called empiricists, believe that all knowledge is ultimately grounded upon experience.
A thorough epistemology should, of course, address all kinds of knowledge, although there might be different standards for a priori and a posteriori knowledge. We can also distinguish between individual knowledge and collective knowledge.
Social epistemology is the subfield of epistemology that addresses the way that groups, institutions, or other collective bodies might come to acquire knowledge.
The Nature of Propositional Knowledge Having narrowed our focus to propositional knowledge, we must ask ourselves what, exactly, constitutes knowledge.
What does it mean for someone to know something? What is the difference between someone who knows something and someone else who does not know it, or between something one knows and something one does not know?Defined narrowly, epistemology is the study of knowledge and justified belief.
As the study of knowledge, epistemology is concerned with the following questions: What are the necessary and sufficient conditions of knowledge? Therefore, knowledge requires truth.
A proposition S doesn't even believe can't be a proposition that S knows. Epistemology: Kant and Theories of Truth I. The debate between empiricists and rationalists prompts Immanuel Kant () to highlight differences between the kinds of statements, judgments, or propositions that guide the discussion.
As the title of the paper suggests, chapter 12 discusses the relation between epistemology and truth. Davidson criticizes two main (and apparently opposing) positions according to which truth is, respectively, radically non‐epistemic or to be spelled out in modal epistemological terms.
Epistemology. Epistemology is the study of knowledge. Epistemologists concern themselves with a number of tasks, which we might sort into two categories. Belief, Truth, and Knowledge.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. A defense of reliabilism. BonJour, Laurence, As one accepts Rationalism as an adequate epistemology to establish evidence of truth, then by implication, the "nature of truth" assumed to be an Essence or Idea existing in a metaphysical realm and captured by the mind.
Much debate in epistemology centers on four areas: (1) the philosophical analysis of the nature of knowledge and how it relates to such concepts as truth, belief, and justification, (2) various problems of skepticism, (3) the sources and scope of knowledge and justified belief, and . Truth is Truth — whether attained by Epistemological arguments or by Ontological arguments. There are not different “types of Truth.” Your question probably means, “what is the different between Kant’s Epistemological method for attaining Truth, and Hegel’s Ontological method for. As the title of the paper suggests, chapter 12 discusses the relation between epistemology and truth. Davidson criticizes two main (and apparently opposing) positions according to which truth is, respectively, radically non‐epistemic or to be spelled out in modal epistemological terms.
It makes sense that Rationalism is the primary approach of a branch of philosophy called "Metaphysics.". Epistemology is the study of the nature and scope of knowledge and justified belief.
It analyzes the nature of knowledge and how it relates to similar notions such as truth, belief and justification.