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Fear is an extremely powerful motivator. If you are scared about your safety or the safety of your family and friends, you are likely to take the most obvious protective action quickly without wasting time studying the nuances of your possible options.
This 'fight or flight' response is one of our most primitive survival strategies, and it is difficult to counter fear with a calmly considered discussion.
I intend to try, however, and if you are reading this page because you have heard that community water fluoridation is dangerous to your health and ineffective, I encourage you to set aside your fears and consider the following content with an open mind.
There are plenty of places you can regain that fear later, if I am unable to convince you that your fears are unfounded.
Fear is a powerful motivator. This is an accurate analysis - language alert, though The Introduction briefly summarizes the reasons I am not convinced by the fluoridation opponents' arguments about the alleged danger we are all exposed to as a result of community drinking water fluoridation.
There is legitimate scientific disagreement about whether fluoridation is as significant a preventative measure for dental decay today as it was before the introduction of fluoride-containing toothpaste, fluoride dental treatments and other sources of the fluoride ion.
This section contains over fifty links to books, articles, endorsements and position statements that describe the history, benefits, risks and costs of fluoridation.
The references provide a cross section of the wide acceptance in the scientific, medical and government communities of fluoridation as a safe and effective way to increase community dental health.
I admit I have 'cherry picked' these resources specifically to counter the claim that there is no reliable evidence to support the scientific consensus that fluoridation is a process that is both safe and effective. The An analysis of bioethical dilemma that have been identified are not ignored by the scientific, dental and medical communities, but the potential benefits of fluoridation at optimal levels have consistently been found to outweigh any known or suspected risks.
Over national and International health organizations recognize the public health benefit of fluoridation as a safe and effective method to reduce dental decay.
This section contains links to over published, reviewed studies that demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of community water fluoridation as well as the risks of excessive exposure.
Case Analysis: John has indicated through his note that he refuses potentially life-sustaining treatment, but his competency to make decisions is questionable in the context of attempted suicide. Also at issue is the distinction between the acute and chronic conditions. The precedent for . A Written Analysis Of Ethical Dilemmas. Health care setting are vulnerable on very many dilemma on how they are supposed to take certain decision. This is encompassed by the ethical practices that they should practice and a right decision should be taken in any case. There are various ethics that a health practitioner is supposed to heed to. Legal Research & Practical Guidance. Build your legal strategy and do vital work using authoritative primary law, analysis, guidance, court records and validation tools.
In this section I provide a very specific example of how fluoridation opponents use fear and the misrepresentation of study results to manufacture a problem where none exists and sell the resulting illusion to the public as fact.
I am against this type of blatant manipulation of evidence to justify any belief. If a position is scientifically valid, that position can, and should, be supported and justified using a fair presentation of the evidence - twisting evidence only confuses the issue.
Both papers examine the same hypothesis, that exposure to optimally fluoridated drinking water 0. These experts serve pro bono to advise the federal government and the general public on scientific and technological issues that affect people's lives worldwide.
It apparently does not matter at all to fluoridation opponents that these statements are a complete misstatement of the paper's conclusions. I created this reference page to refute claims you may have encountered that there is no evidence to support the safety and effectiveness of drinking water fluoridation as a method to enhance community dental health.
I selected this representation of articles, stories and reference papers to provide clear evidence that over sixty five years of research has, in fact, produced hundreds of studies and reviews that conclude drinking water fluoridation at optimal levels of 0.
I do not claim there is no negative evidence regarding fluoridation or that all negative evidence should be ignored. As with the study of any complex subject, it is the consensus reached after all evidence is fairly evaluated that is important - not the conclusions drawn by accepting only selected evidence.
Fear sells ideas just as effectively as it sells products. Sex doesn't sell, it's fear. In the first episode of Mad Men Smoke gets in your eyes Don Draper outlines the appeal of fear as a tool for selling with chilling clarity.
One former marketing executive from a soft drinks multinational even told me how they would brainstorm these anxieties on a "whiteboard of worry". To brilliantly, cunningly hone a product that offers temporary "freedom from fear", temporary because a new fear and a new product will be on their way soon.
Here are some of the ways it is done. As you research this complicated topic, be aware that information presented by fluoridation opponents is neither balanced or complete - it is meticulously designed to create fear of fluoridation and a distrust of all responsible parties. Most people who have serious questions and concerns about fluoridation and who are willing to embark on a thoughtful investigation of the answers are not scientists or medical professionals.
You may be researching this topic precisely because you have heard an anti-fluoridation presentation or encountered a website demonizing fluoridation. You may have only encountered anti-fluoride 'evidence', and you may not have the expertise and experience or time to do your own exhaustive and exhausting evaluation of all of the available evidence.
Relatively few people are able to review all details concerning the study design, methodology, statistical analysis, etc. Honestly, I have had years of scientific training and experience, and I find it very difficult to evaluate many of the research papers I try to examine.
It is inevitable then, that to a greater or lesser degree, nearly everyone who has questions and concerns about fluoridation will need to depend on some Authority -- an individual or group -- to provide an understandable interpretation of the decades of accumulated evidence. Each Authority will promote its perspective and agenda, biases and conclusions.
And that's precisely the problem. Fluoridation supporters and opponents have completely different, diametrically opposed interpretations, and they have come to mutually exclusive conclusions about fluoridation, even though they have access to exactly the same body of evidence.Bioethical Issues Areas of health sciences that are the subject of published, peer-reviewed bioethical analysis 4.
- Abortion - Cloning - Confidentiality - Euthanasia - Assisted suicide 5. Case Analysis: John has indicated through his note that he refuses potentially life-sustaining treatment, but his competency to make decisions is questionable in the context of attempted suicide.
Also at issue is the distinction between the acute and chronic conditions. The precedent for . Each case presents and analyzes an historical example of an ethical dilemma in international affairs. Journalism. Society of Professional Journalists Ethics Case Studies including topic overview, pro/con positions on key questions, and situation analysis.
You can also create email alerts that will let you know when new reports are posted on. In development or moral, political, and bioethical philosophy, autonomy is the capacity to make an informed, un-coerced decision.
Autonomous organizations or institutions are independent or self-governing. Autonomy can also be defined from human resource perspective and it means a level of discretion granted to an employee in his or her work.
In such cases, autonomy is known to bring some. The contemporary bioethical standards: autonomy, freedom, objectivity, privacy, beneficence, and fidelity are maximally appropriate to the health care setting. It is a common but erroneous belief.
I made the videos for business students and faculty, but most of the material deals with ethical analysis in general. (The videos are recent updates of the original version.) If you don’t have time to watch the videos, read the transcripts.